LPOD intends to make available important articles that have slipped out of the consciousness of most observers. These are either articles that I have scanned and placed online or links to important classic articles that exist elsewhere. Please let me know of ones that you think should be added to this list.
Download and enjoy!
Both, Ernst E. (1961) A History of Lunar Studies. Buffalo Museum of Science, Misc. Contributions No. 16.
This is the first detailed history of lunar studies, a small pamphlet that was a source for Epic Moon and many shorter articles. An excellent introduction!
Both, Ernst E. (1967) William Radcliff Birt (1804-81). Lunar Section Notes No. 2. Buffalo Astronomical Association.
In the late 1800s Birt was desperate to organize British observers to make detailed maps of the Moon in order to detect changes. He failed. Repeatedly. Here is his story.
Both, Ernst E. (1971) Maedler and the Moon - A Classic Balance. The Amateur Astronomer, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 4-9.
Informative description of Mädler’s Moon mapping, including his nomenclature and later, little known lunar mapping.
Both, Ernst E. (1975) Mapping the Moon: 200 Years Ago. Science on the March, Vol. 55, pp. 28-30.
The tale of the first surveyor to map the Moon.
Dana, (1846) On the Volcanoes of the Moon. American Journal of Science. Vol. 11, pp.335-355.
Dana was a practicing geologist who was one of the first to study the Hawaiian volcanoes and he applied his knowledge of them to mistakenly conclude that lunar craters had a similar origin. Although wrong, Dana was one of the first to base his arguments on actual understanding of how some craters on Earth form. Most of the other people who speculated on the origin of lunar craters did so without relevant knowledge.
Dietz, Robert S. (1946) The Meteorite Impact Origin of the Moon’s Surface Features. Geological Society of America, Vol. 54, pp. 359-375.
Before Baldwin, Bob Dietz proposed that the Imbrium basin resulted from a giant meteorite impact and that there were impact craters - astroblems - on Earth that could be recognized by shatter cones.
Fauth, Philipp (1894) Neue Beiträge zur Begründung einer modernen Selenologie . Astronomische Nachrichten, volume 137, p.17.
Fauth-1.gif.pdf, Fauth-2.pdf, Fauth-3.pdf,Fauth-4.pdf, Fauth-5.pdf
Schmidt made thousands of measures of crater diameters and depths but didn’t analyze them. Fauth did, beginning the modern quantitative approach to studies of lunar features.
Gifford, A.C. (1930) The Origin of the Surface Features of the Moon. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 11, pp. 319-327.
A guaranteed way to make sure your great science results are overlooked its to publish them in an obscure journal. Gifford was one of the first to understand that the cosmic velocities involved made impacts highly explosive, resulting in circular craters.
Gilbert, G.K. (1893) The Moon’s Face - A Study of the Origin of its Features. Philosophical Society of Washington, Bulletin Vol. XII, pp 241-292; 2.5 MB.
A very modern interpretation of the Moon from more than 110 years ago. Gilbert, a prominent geologist, used the US Naval Observatory 26″ refractor to observe the Moon for about 2 months and decided that the craters were of impact origin, discovered the lineations radial to Mare Imbrium and proposed that the lava filled a giant impact crater. This is very much a lunar classic.
Loewy and Puiseux. (1897) Photographic Studies of the Moon at the Paris Observatory. Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 5, pp. 51-59.
The greatest lunar project at the end of the 19th century was the imaging of the Moon at the Paris Observatory. Here is an English summary of some of that work including conclusions on the origin (volcanic) of various features.
Pickering, William H. (1920) The Origin of the Lunar Formations. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Vol. 32, pp. 116-125.
Arguments against the meteoritic origin, by an observer who believed there were insects and planets on the lunar surface.
Spencer, L.J. (1937) Meteorites and the Craters of the Moon. Nature, April 17, pp. 655-657.
Although most people who studied the Moon in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries believed the craters were volcanic in origin, Spencer and a few others argued for an inpact origin.
Whitaker, Ewen (1954) The Lunar South Polar Regions. Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Vol. 64, No. 6, pp. 234-242.
This paper clearly mapped the mountains near the south pole and first depicted the crater (R4) that much later was named Shoemaker. Thanks to JBAA for permission to make this article available!